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Importance of English Education at Kindergarten Level 
ByJoseph   posted on01 Mar, 12 10017 Views 0 Comments Main Feature Add to favorite

Other areas of language development are: Speech perception, Speech comprehension, and Speech interaction. Mothers train their children in innumerable ways depending upon their own personalities. The elder siblings also do a great deal of contribution by interacting with children.

A recorded one-sided conversation

Michael (3 months): (Loud crying.)
Mother: (Enters room) Oh my word, what a noise! What a noise! (Picks up baby.)
Michael: (Sobs.)
Mother: Oh dear, dear, dear. Didnot anybody come to see you? Lets have a look at you. (Looks inside nappy.) No, you are all right there, aren’t you.
Michael: (Spluttering noise.)
Mother: Well, what is it, then? Are you hungry, is that it? Is it a long time since dinner-time?
Michael: (Gurgles.)
Mother: (Nuzzles baby.) Oh yes it is, a long long time.
Michael: (Cooing noise.)
Mother: Yes, I know. Let’s go and get some lovely grub, then… (D. Crystal, 1987, p. 239.)
Phonological development

By the time children are a year old, they have learned a great deal about the way adults use sounds to express differences in meaning, but their own ability to produce these sounds lags some way behind. Some 1-year-olds can recognize several dozen words, involving a wide range of vowels and consonants, but their own ability to pronounce these words may be restricted to just two or three consonants and a single vowel.

The ‘fis’ phenomenon

Several studies have reported intriguing conversations between a young child and an adult, showing that there may be a big difference between what children hear and what they say. The phenomenon was first reported in the following way:

One of us, for instance, spoke to a child who called his inflated plastic fish a fis. In imitation of the child’s pronunciation, the observer said: ‘This is your fis?’ ‘No,’ said the child, ‘my fis.’ He continued to reject the adult’s imitation until he was told, ‘That is your fish.’ ‘Yes,’ he said, ‘my fis.’ (J. Berko and R. Brown, 1960, p. 531.)

The effect has been referred to as the ‘fis phenomenon’ ever since. Such reports indicate that children know far more about adult phonology than their own pronunciation suggests.

Grammatical development moves from single-word utterances to two-word sentences and towards sentence structure. At around 2 years of age, many children produce sentences that are three or four words in length. Towards the age of 3, there is a major grammatical advance, with the appearance of sentences containing more than one clause. The sorting out of grammatical errors is a particular feature of 4-year-old speech. Many of the irregularities of syntax and morphology are being mastered around this age, though it can take several years before errors are eliminated. A popular impression of grammatical learning is that it is complete by age 5; but recent studies have shown that the acquisition of several types of construction is still taking place as children approach 10 or 11.

Semantic development The learning of vocabulary is the most noticeable feature of the early months of language acquisition. From the point when a child’s ‘first word’ is identified, there is a steady lexical growth in both comprehension and production. An indication of the scope and speed of progress can be obtained from a study of American

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